Minggu, 01 Juli 2012

Physical Geography: Luxembourgh


Luxembourg

  • Official name: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

  • Area: 2,586 square kilometers (998 square miles)

  • Highest point on mainland: Buurgplaatz (559 meters/1,834 feet)

  • Lowest point on land: Moselle River (133 meters/436 feet)

  • Hemispheres: Northern and Eastern

  • Time zone: 1 p.m = noon GMT

  • Longest distances: 57 kilometers (35 miles) from east to west; 82 kilometers  (51 miles) from north to south

  • Land boundaries: 356 kilometers (221 miles) total boundary length; Belgium 148 kilometers (92 miles), France 73 kilometers (45 miles), Germany 135 kilometers (84 miles)

  • Coastline: None

  • Territorial sea limits: None


1.      LOCATION AND SIZE
Luxembourg,  one  of  the  world’s  smallest countries, is a landlocked nation located at the heart  of Western Europe. Together with Belgium and the Netherlands, it is part of a group known as the Benelux countries (formerly the Low Countries). With an area of 2,586 square kilometers  (998  square  miles),  it  is  slightly smaller than the state of Rhode Island.
2.      TERRITORIES AND DEPENDENCIES
Luxembourg has no territories or dependencies.

3.      CLIMATE
Luxembourg  has  a  temperate  climate,  with cool  summers,  mild  winters,  and  plentiful precipitation. The city of Luxembourg, in the south-central part of the country, has average temperatures of 0.6°C  (33°F)  in  January and 17°C  (63°F)  in  July.  In  the Oesling  region  to the north, temperature averages for both seasons are  somewhat  lower. The Moselle River Valley  in  the  east  has  an  especially pleasant climate,  which  has  led  to  its  nickname  of “Little  Riviera.”  Rainfall,  which  varies  from about 76 centimeters (30 inches) to 127 centimeters  (50  inches)  annually,  is  generally heavier in the north.
4.      TOPOGRAPHIC REGIONS
Despite  its  small  size,  Luxembourg’s  terrain varies considerably and includes parts of three diferent  topographical  areas:  the  Lorraine plateau  of  northern  France,  the  foothills  of Belgium’s Ardennes Mountains,  and  Germany’s Moselle Valley. The  intersection  of  these features  carves  Luxembourg  into  two  major geographic regions. The northern third of the country,  known  as  the  Oesling,  is  a  plateau region  belonging  to  the Ardennes  system  of southeastern  Belgium.  The  southern  two thirds, known as Gutland, or the Bon Pays,  is a region of  lower elevation consisting of hills and broad valleys.

5.      OCEANS AND SEAS
Luxembourg is landlocked.
6.      INLAND LAKES
The  most  important  lake  is  the  Upper  Sûre Lake, situated on the course of the Sûre River as  it  winds  across  the  upper  portion  of  the country. Esch-sur-Sûre is located at its eastern end, which is the site of both a nature reserve and a hydroelectric dam.
7.      RIVERS AND WATERFALLS
Luxembourg’s major  rivers are  the Moselle, the Sûre, and  the Our, which  together  form its  border  with  Germany.  The  Moselle, which  originates  in  France  and  has  a  total length  of  515  kilometers  (320  miles),  demarcates  Luxembourg’s  eastern  border  for 31  kilometers  (19 miles).  The  Sûre,  which rises in Belgium, flows eastward across Luxembourg  in  a  meandering  course  for  172 kilometers (107 miles), gathering tributaries from both the northern and southern parts of  the country before reaching  the German border  and  then  flowing  southward  into the Moselle.  In  the  south,  the Alzette River flows  northward  through  the  center  of  the country until it reaches the Sûre.
8.      DESERTS
There are no deserts in Luxembourg.
9.      FLAT AND ROLLING TERRAIN
The  southern  two-thirds  of  Luxembourg consists  of  fertile,  gently  rolling  land  with an  average  elevation  of  about  229  meters (750  feet). The Moselle River Valley  in  the east is known for its vineyards, and there is a mining  region  to  the  southwest, near  the border with France.
10.  MOUNTAINS AND VOLCANOES
The  highest  point  in  Luxembourg’s  uplands, and also in the country as a whole, is Buurgplaatz, at 559 meters (1,834 feet).
11.  CANYONS AND CAVES
The  Hoestrof  Cave  is  4,000  meters  (13,124 feet) long.
12.  PLATEAUS AND MONOLITHS
The Ardennes region that forms Luxembourg’s northern uplands consists of a plateau that has an average elevation of 450 meters (1,500 feet) and  is  deeply  carved  by  the  valleys  of  the Sûre River and its tributaries.
13.  MAN-MADE FEATURES
Luxembourg’s  hills  and  plateaus  are  connected  by  numerous  bridges,  which  are especially  prominent  in  the  capital  city. Bridges  in  the  capital  include  the modern Grand Duchesse Charlotte Bridge, popularly known as  the Red Bridge;  the  seventeenth-century Vaubon Bridge; the late nineteenth-century  Pont  Adolphe,  once  the  world’s longest  single-span  stone  bridge;  and  the Pont Victor Bodson.
 
Source:
JUNIOR WORLDMARK ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Vol. 3, Karen Ellicott and Susan Bevan Gall

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